11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors a review of recent patents

The amount of functional 11-beta-hydroxylase enzyme that an individual produces typically determines the extent of abnormal sexual development. Individuals with the classic form of the condition usually have CYP11B1 gene mutations that result in the production of an enzyme with low levels of function or no function at all. Individuals with the non-classic form of the condition typically have CYP11B1 gene mutations that lead to the production of an enzyme with moderately reduced function. The severity of the signs and symptoms of sexual development do not appear to be related to the severity of the hypertension.

"The whole body 11bHSD1 activity reflects mainly hepatic expression. Initial studies that relied on measurements of cortisol-to-cortisone metabolites in urine (23,36) should be taken with caution as indicative of 11bHSD1 activity, because several other cortisol and cortisone metabolizing enzymes are deregulated in obesity (36). Of greater importance is the finding of reduced hepatic 11bHSD1 activity measured by the conversion of orally administered cortisone to cortisol (23,37). Thus, 11bHSD1 upregulation in obesity seems not to be a generalized process. In both the whole body and the splanchnic circulation there are no differences between obese and lean subjects regarding cortisol regeneration rates (as measured by [2H4]-cortisol tracer), presumably because an upregulation in adipose tissue is counterbalanced by a downregulation in the liver (15).

Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. [8] Epigallocatechin gallate from green tea can also potently inhibit this enzyme, [9] green tea is a complex mixture of various phenolics with contents varying with production and processing, some of the phenolics are known HDAC inhibitors that alter genetic expression. EGCG as usually consumed in green tea is poorly absorbed into the bloodstream, more research is needed to reach firm conclusions.

Two isoforms of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) interconvert the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, and inactive cortisone. 11beta-HSD1 is believed to act in vivo predominantly as an oxo-reductase using NADP(H) as a cofactor to generate cortisol. In contrast, 11beta-HSD2 acts exclusively as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase inactivating cortisol to cortisone, thereby protecting the mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by cortisol. In peripheral tissues, both enzymes serve to control the availability of cortisol to bind to the corticosteroid receptors. Defective expression of 11beta-HSD2 is implicated in patients with hypertension and intra-uterine growth retardation, while 11beta-HSD1 appears to be intricately involved in the conditions of apparent cortisone reductase deficiency, insulin resistance and visceral obesity. The ability of peripheral tissues to regulate corticosteroid concentrations through 11beta-HSD isozymes is established as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of diverse human diseases. Modulation of enzyme activity may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treating human disease while circumventing the consequences of systemic glucocorticoid excess or deficiency.

11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors a review of recent patents

11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors a review of recent patents

Two isoforms of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) interconvert the active glucocorticoid, cortisol, and inactive cortisone. 11beta-HSD1 is believed to act in vivo predominantly as an oxo-reductase using NADP(H) as a cofactor to generate cortisol. In contrast, 11beta-HSD2 acts exclusively as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase inactivating cortisol to cortisone, thereby protecting the mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by cortisol. In peripheral tissues, both enzymes serve to control the availability of cortisol to bind to the corticosteroid receptors. Defective expression of 11beta-HSD2 is implicated in patients with hypertension and intra-uterine growth retardation, while 11beta-HSD1 appears to be intricately involved in the conditions of apparent cortisone reductase deficiency, insulin resistance and visceral obesity. The ability of peripheral tissues to regulate corticosteroid concentrations through 11beta-HSD isozymes is established as an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of diverse human diseases. Modulation of enzyme activity may offer a novel therapeutic approach to treating human disease while circumventing the consequences of systemic glucocorticoid excess or deficiency.

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