Asthma medication steroids oral

Family history is a risk factor for asthma, with many different genes being implicated. [67] If one identical twin is affected, the probability of the other having the disease is approximately 25%. [67] By the end of 2005, 25 genes had been associated with asthma in six or more separate populations, including GSTM1 , IL10 , CTLA-4 , SPINK5 , LTC4S , IL4R and ADAM33 , among others. [68] Many of these genes are related to the immune system or modulating inflammation. Even among this list of genes supported by highly replicated studies, results have not been consistent among all populations tested. [68] In 2006 over 100 genes were associated with asthma in one genetic association study alone; [68] more continue to be found. [69]

Asthma is caused by an inflammation and obstruction of the bronchial tubes, the tubes that help the lung inhale and exhale air. In 2009 the American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology stated that one in every 12 people in the United States had a diagnosis of asthma, compared to one in 14 in 2001. [1] During an asthma attack, the muscles around the bronchial tubes tighten and swell, which narrows the air passages and thus makes it difficult for the person to breathe. Common triggers of asthma attacks include exposure to an allergen (like grass, tress, pollen, etc.), irritants in the air (such as smoke or strong smells), illnesses (like the flu), stress, extreme weather conditions (such as extreme heat), or physical exertion and exercise. [2] Learning to recognize when you or someone else is having an asthma attack and knowing what to do can help save a life.

Many good treatments for asthma are available today. Some asthma medicines relax your airways and help you breathe easier, while other treatments reduce the swelling and inflammation in your airways. It's important to follow your healthcare provider's advice about your treatment. Some medicines help prevent asthma symptoms. You need to take these medicines all the time, even when you feel well. Other medicines may be needed if your asthma starts to get worse. If your asthma is getting worse, start treatment as soon as your symptoms begin.

The associations between PM elemental components and daily symptoms or medication use are presented in Table 4 . Individual elements in fine particle mass may come from more than one source but are listed in Table 4 according to the source with which they were most strongly associated ( Table 3 ). Associations for same-day exposure (L0) and exposures averaged over the same day and previous 2 days (L02) are shown in Table 4 . Exposures lagged by 1 or 2 days (L1, L2) are included in Table 2 in the Supplemental Material (available online at http:///members/2009/08​00335/). In general, trace elements originating from the motor vehicle, road dust, biomass burning, and oil sources are associated with symptoms and/or medication use. For example, a significantly increased likelihood of wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or short-acting inhaler use is associated with each 1,000-ng/m 3 increase in EC. The strongest associations were found for the 3-day averaged exposures to the elemental constituents of road dust. No associations were found between individual elements associated with sulfur or sea salt sources and symptoms or medication use. Total PM was not significantly associated with any symptoms or medication use [see Supplemental Material, Table 3 (available online at http:///members/2009/08​00335/)].

Inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay for daily controller medications in children and toddlers. The choice of which inhaled corticosteroid often comes down to which medication delivery device is preferred by caretakers. Young children can use metered-dose inhalers with a spacer and face mask, as long as caregivers are trained and feel comfortable with the proper technique. Budesonide is available via nebulizer, and this may be easier for infants and younger toddlers. Some children may also feel comfortable with a dry powder inhaler. If used properly, all medication delivery devices are effective, so choice is usually individualized based on caregiver and child preference. Combination inhalers are also used in children, and health-care professionals caring for children with asthma may choose these for children with moderate to severe asthma.

Asthma is a common chronic disorder which may be increasing in prevalence. However, little is known of its distribution and determinants. The European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) is a multicentre survey of the prevalence, determinants and management of asthma. This paper presents a descriptive account of the variation in self-reported attacks of asthma and asthma symptoms across Europe, and in part fulfils the first aim of the study. A screening questionnaire, including seven questions relating to the 12 month prevalence of symptoms of asthma, was distributed to representative samples of 20-44 year old men and women in 48 centers, predominantly in Western Europe. The median response rate to the questionnaire was 75% but, after removing from the denominator those who were the wrong age, were known to have moved out of the area, or had died, it was 78% (range 54-100). The prevalence of all symptoms varied widely. Although these were generally lower in northern, central and southern Europe and higher in the British Isles, New Zealand, Australia and the United States, there were wide variations even within some countries. Centres with a high prevalence of self-reported attacks of asthma also reported high prevalences of nasal allergies and of waking at night with breathlessness. The use of asthma medication was more common where wheeze and asthma attacks were more frequent. In most centres in The Netherlands, Sweden, New Zealand and the United Kingdom over 80% of those with a diagnosis of asthma were currently using asthma medication. In Italy, France and Spain the rate was generally less than 70%. These data are the best evidence to date that geographical differences in asthma prevalence exist, are substantial and are not an artefact of the use of noncomparable methods.

Asthma medication steroids oral

asthma medication steroids oral

The associations between PM elemental components and daily symptoms or medication use are presented in Table 4 . Individual elements in fine particle mass may come from more than one source but are listed in Table 4 according to the source with which they were most strongly associated ( Table 3 ). Associations for same-day exposure (L0) and exposures averaged over the same day and previous 2 days (L02) are shown in Table 4 . Exposures lagged by 1 or 2 days (L1, L2) are included in Table 2 in the Supplemental Material (available online at http:///members/2009/08​00335/). In general, trace elements originating from the motor vehicle, road dust, biomass burning, and oil sources are associated with symptoms and/or medication use. For example, a significantly increased likelihood of wheeze, shortness of breath, chest tightness, or short-acting inhaler use is associated with each 1,000-ng/m 3 increase in EC. The strongest associations were found for the 3-day averaged exposures to the elemental constituents of road dust. No associations were found between individual elements associated with sulfur or sea salt sources and symptoms or medication use. Total PM was not significantly associated with any symptoms or medication use [see Supplemental Material, Table 3 (available online at http:///members/2009/08​00335/)].

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