Bronchiolitis is a common cause of illness and is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children. Treatment includes measures to ensure that the child consumes adequate fluids and is able to breathe without significant difficulty. Most children begin to improve two to five days after first developing breathing difficulties, but wheezing can last for a week or longer. Bronchiolitis can cause serious illness in some children. Infants who are very young, born early, have lung or heart disease, or have difficulty fighting infections or handling oral secretions are more likely to have severe disease with bronchiolitis. It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms that require evaluation and treatment.
Secondary RSV infections occur in 46% of family members, 98% of other children attending a childcare center, 42% of hospital staff, and 45% of previously uninfected hospitalized infants. [ 17 , 60 , 61 ] Infection is spread through self-inoculation of nasopharyngeal or ocular mucous membranes after direct contact with respiratory fomites and contaminated environmental surfaces. RSV can survive for several hours on hands and surfaces; therefore, handwashing and using disposable gloves and gowns may reduce nosocomial spread. [ 62 , 63 ]
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4. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Bronchiolitis in children. A national clinical guideline. 2006. http:///pdf/