Quaas and Ginsburg (2007) provided a systematic review on prevention and treatment of uterine bleeding in the setting of hematologic malignancy. These researchers performed MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane searches with the terms uterine bleeding, uterine hemorrhage, hematologic malignancy. All identified literature sources were included in the review. The identified literature is largely comprised of case series and pilot studies. No evidence-based protocols for gynecologists and hematologists are available. The majority of the identified literature centers on menstrual suppression with GnRH agonists in hematologic malignancy, although no randomized trials could be identified. Review of the identified literature suggests that medical prevention with GnRH agonist therapy is highly effective for prevention of uterine bleeding in hematologic malignancy. With respect to treatment of acute uterine bleeding in the setting of hematologic malignancy, medical therapy can be used and is successful in the majority of patients, according to the identified studies. Surgical treatment should be used expeditiously if medical treatment options fail to control acute bleeding. Empiric prevention and treatment algorithms for the discussed clinical settings are proposed. The authors stated that more research is necessary on the topic, with the goal to develop evidence-based guidelines for gynecology and hematology-oncology care providers. Close cooperation between the specialties may improve morbidity and mortality associated with uterine bleeding in hematological malignancy in the future.
Because steroids are lipophilic, they diffuse easily through the cell membranes, and therefore have a very large distribution volume. In their target tissues, steroids are concentrated by an uptake mechanism which relies on their binding to intracellular proteins (or " receptors ", see below). High concentration of steroids are also found in adipose tissue, although this is not a target for hormone action. In the human male, adipose tissue contains aromatase activity, and seems to be the main source of androgen-derived estrogens found in the circulation. But most of the peripheral metabolism occurs in the liver and to some extent in the kidneys, which are the major sites of hormone inactivation and elimination, or catabolism (see below).