From October 1968 to July 2017, a total of 138 medals have been stripped, and 9 medals have been declared vacant after being stripped, with the vast majority of these occurring since 2000 due to improved drug testing methods. The majority of medals have been stripped in Athletics (49, including 21 gold medals) and Weightlifting (46, including 13 gold medals). The country which has had the most medals stripped from it is Russia , with 37. The 2008 Summer Olympics had most, 50 medals stripped, and the 2012 Summer Olympics had 29.
Typically, any athlete who tests positive for banned substances after having served a previous ban receives a lifetime ban from the sport of athletics. Many high-profile sportspeople to receive doping bans have come from the sport of athletics, with significant past cases concerning Ben Johnson , Marion Jones and Tim Montgomery . Furthermore, a number of athletes who underwent state-sponsored doping programmes in East Germany between the 1960s and 1980s were competitors in athletics, but the quality of the international anti-doping work was so poor that only one East German athlete ever tested positive.  Following allegations of state-sponsored doping in Russia , the IAAF suspended the country's athletes from competition, including the 2016 Summer Olympics.