Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt of adolescence and for eventual termination of linear growth, brought about by fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate linear growth rates, but may cause disproportionate advancement in bone maturation. Use over long periods may result in fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and termination of the growth process. Androgens have been reported to stimulate production of red blood cells by enhancing production of erythropoietic stimulation factor.
A small and very rare risk is that the injected joint becomes infected (1 in 15,000). Patients who experience a very painful, red, or swollen joint after injection should seek medical attention immediately. Thankfully, the most common cause of these symptoms is not a concerning infection but a reaction to the injected steroid (called steroid flare ) that occurs in 2-5% of patients. A steroid flare usually begins 6-12 hours after the injection and can last for 2-3 days. Regardless of the cause, it is important for patients with symptoms of infection to see a doctor because infections require immediate treatment.
Epidural steroid injections are most commonly used in situations of radicular pain, which is a radiating pain that is transmitted away from the spine by an irritated spinal nerve. Irritation of a spinal nerve in the low back ( lumbar radiculopathy ), such as from lumbar spinal stenosis , cervical spinal stenosis, herniated disc , and foraminal encroachment, causes back pain that goes down the leg. Epidural injection is also used as a minimally invasive procedure to treat nerve compression in the neck (cervical spine), referred to as cervical radiculopathy , which causes pain.