Two studies compared capsaicin with placebo . One study reported that capsaicin resulted in an improvement of overall nasal symptoms (a primary outcome ) measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 to 10. There was a mean difference ( MD ) of - (95% confidence interval ( CI ) - to -), MD - (95% CI - to -) and MD - (95% CI - to -) at two, 12 and 36 weeks post-treatment, respectively. Another study reported that, compared to placebo , capsaicin (at 4 µg/puff) was more likely to produce overall symptom resolution (reduction in nasal blockage, sneezing/itching/coughing and nasal secretion measured with a daily record chart ) at four weeks post-treatment (a primary outcome ). The risk ratio ( RR ) was (95% CI to ).